Hopes for this were dashed in 2010, when Tokyo's municipal government told Saotome there was no public funding available. The incendiary raid conducted on the night of 29/30 November by 29 Superfortresses burnt out one tenth of a square mile, and was also judged to be unsuccessful by the Twentieth Air Force's headquarters. Further F-13 sorties were conducted during early November to gather intelligence on aircraft factories and port facilities in the Tokyo–Yokosuka area. The Americans claimed 18 Japanese fighter "kills" as well as another 30 "probables" and 16 damaged. Hirohito never used the words "surrender" or "defeat" but said "the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb" and Japan would need to accept its enemies' demands to save the country. Over the course of the bombing raid, American planes dropped an estimated 2,000 tons of explosives on the city, creating a massive firestorm which killed countless numbers of civilians. That summer of 1945 was tough for Nihei. The second raid took place on 7 July when 17 B-29s attacked Sasebo, Ōmura and Tobata, causing little damage, and on the night of 10/11 August 24 Superfortresses attacked Nagasaki. [154], XXI Bomber Command also conducted an intensive propaganda campaign alongside its firebombing raids. "[144] In Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, "the areas leveled (almost 100 square miles (260 km2)) exceeded the areas destroyed in all German cities by both the American and British air forces (approximately 79 square miles (200 km2)). "You'll be burned alive (in here)," her father said. The resulting shortage of rice caused widespread malnutrition, and mass starvation would have occurred had the war continued. [268] Royal Australian Air Force, British Royal Air Force, Indian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force, US Navy and United States Marine Corps air units were also deployed to Japan for occupation duties. Japanese defenses were much weaker by night, and the three bombers lost in this attack crashed due to mechanical problems. Over 2,600 American bomber crew members were killed, including POWs who died in captivity, and a further 433 were wounded.[2]. These attacks initially attempted to target industrial facilities using high-altitude daylight "precision" bombing, which was also largely ineffective. While McNamara talks about the firebombing in the movie, there is a very fast sequence of frames in which the bombed Japanese cities are named, with a comparison of the size of the Japanese city to a U.S. equivalent, plus a percentage of the Japanese city destroyed. [240], Following the attack, a statement from President Truman was broadcast to announce that the United States had used an atomic bomb against Hiroshima and that further air attacks would be conducted on Japan's industrial facilities and transportation network. USAAF planners began assessing the feasibility of a firebombing campaign against Japanese cities in 1943. Nevertheless, 458 heavy bombers and 27 P-51s reached the city and the bombardment killed 3,960 Japanese and destroyed 3.15 square miles (8.2 km2) of buildings. [57] XX Bomber Command's performance improved after LeMay instituted a training program and improved the organization of the B-29 maintenance units during August and September. The F-13s were generally able to evade the heavy anti-aircraft fire they attracted and the large numbers of Japanese fighters that were scrambled to intercept them as they flew at both high speed and high altitude. [26] The destruction of the airfields and heavy casualties badly damaged China's war effort. [47], The Japanese government also sought to improve the country's civil defenses in response to the Doolittle Raid and the threat of further attacks. At the Yalta Conference one year later, Stalin told Roosevelt that American B-29s would be based at the remote Komsomolsk-Nikolaevsk area. No B-29s were lost in these raids. [148] Four days later, 510 B-29s escorted by 148 P-51s were sent against nine factories in southern Honshu and Shikoku. The last attack planned by Hansell was more successful, however: a force of 77 B-29s crippled a Kawasaki Aircraft Industries factory near Akashi on 19 January. The Japanese military later incorrectly concluded that the ROCAF had aircraft capable of mounting attacks at a range of 1,300 miles (2,100 km) from their bases, and took precautions against potential raids on western Japan when Chinese forces launched an offensive during 1939. [133][134], By the end of these raids just over half (50.8 percent) of Tokyo had been destroyed and the city was removed from XXI Bomber Command's target list. Two successful large-scale precision bombing raids were flown against aircraft factories in Tokyo and Nagoya on 7 April; the raid on Tokyo was the first to be escorted by Iwo Jima-based P-51 Mustang very-long-range fighters from the VII Fighter Command, and the Americans claimed to have shot down 101 Japanese aircraft for the loss of two P-51s and seven B-29s. XXI Bomber Command attacked Tokyo three times between 27 November and 3 December; two of these raids were made against the Musashino aircraft plant while the other targeted an industrial area using M-69 incendiary cluster bombs, specifically developed to damage Japanese urban areas. Uji-Yamada Ōgaki and Uwajima dispatched against Nagoya American tonnage fell in the occupation of Japan largely ineffective 160,000 injured the. Of wood and paper in combat and another 459,000 had moved to the continental United military... To repeated requests from the Navy, Arnold was disappointed with what XXI Bomber Command incendiary. 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